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Gramática Cognitiva para la enseñanza del español como lengua extranjera

Abstract

La adquisición de segundas lenguas (ASL) es el campo de la lingüística que trata del aprendizaje de una lengua diferente a la materna. El ámbito de acción de la ASL es variado y puede tratarse desde muchas perspectivas, entre otras, la de la psicología, la sociología, el análisis del discurso, las ciencias cognitivas encargadas del procesamiento del lenguaje, la pragmática, la lingüística aplicada y, por supuesto, la didáctica y el aprendizaje de lenguas. Este proceso de aprendizaje puede tener lugar en un contexto de instrucción o a través de la exposición a la lengua y/o la inmersión en el país donde esta se habla. La asimilación de una lengua extranjera puede darse de dos formas: o bien la lengua se aprende o bien se adquiere. La perspectiva de ASL que se trata desde este trabajo se centra en los efectos de la instrucción gramatical en el aula de segunda lengua/lengua extranjera.

Llopis-García, Reyes. Gramática Cognitiva Para La Enseñanza Del Español Como Lengua Extranjera. Madrid: Ministerio De Educación De España, 2011. eBook.

The present work has two main objectives: (1) to join linguistic theory - within a Second Language Acquisition framework – with second/foreign language teaching (in this case, Spanish); and (2) to provide learners with a quality grammatical instruction for mood selection that may enable them to control their own learning and construct meaning on the basis of their communicative intent.

Grammar was worked from a cognitive perspective and the so-called Processing Instruction (PI) – within VanPatten’s Model of Input Processing, 1996, 2002, 2004, 2007 – was used for the practical part of the study. The cognitive grammar instruction drew on the pedagogical approach for Spanish as a foreign language developed by Ruiz Campillo (2007, 2008). From this approach, mood selection can be managed with a minimum of operational values that are prototypical in nature, and that in turn may allow learners to produce an unlimited number of utterances.

PI, on the other hand, facilitates the form-meaning connections that are necessary so that learners may link mood with context of use through structured practice. This practice was completed with both interpretation and production tasks, which interact and complement each other to provide a better acquisition of the target structure.

A total of 81 German students of the RWTH Aachen University participated in the empirical study conducted for this dissertation. They were organized in three experimental groups (interpretation, production, and control) and worked with mood selection in structures with increasing complexity: relative, temporal, and concessive clauses. Their performance was assessed with evaluation tasks before and after the grammar instruction treatments.

Results showed a positive and progressive development in the number of correct answers given for the three clause types. Learners were not only able to successfully connect mood with its meaning, but they also needed less grammar instruction time as the study progressed.

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